Or mail to Waverly City Guide, 455 Hay Hollow Road, Chillicothe, Ohio 45601
The blast furnaces Globe Iron Co. and the Jackson Iron and Steel Company had 6 stoves, (Globe eventually had seven) because of their product. They produced "silvery pig iron," a product used in open hearth furnaces and castings. The silicon ratio in the pig iron could be up to 16%.
It took higher temperatures to create this pig iron. In the early days it took usually four stoves "on" and one under repair. During W.W. II and afterwards, they went to five on and one under repair.
This was highly unusual stove practice, but the higher temperatures took a heavy toll on the linings of the stoves, and it was quite a labor intensive job and took some time to replace the linings.
Eddie Jones and some of the workers of the Globe Iron Company. Eddie is the first man in the second row (with the bow tie).
Globe Furnace April 1936
by Theodor Jung
Globe furnace taken from Railroad Street (Harding Avenue). In the front is old Globe and in the back they are building the new Globe. Picture taken around 1915.
Jackson Globe showing train tracks 1917
Madison Charcoal Furnace 1854 - 1900
Madison Furnace is located directly off of the old CH&D roadbed, just north of the Cooper Hollow Wildlife Area. Take Rt. 32 East from Jackson to 327. Follow Rt. 327 South under the Rt. 35 overpass until it dead ends. Make a right hand turn and then an immediate left onto the CH&D roadbed. Stay on the road until you reach the Cooper Hollow Park Ranger Station, just before crossing a small stream. The furnace is on the right hand side just before you reach a pull off area. If you hit the ranger area, you have gone too far. Iron produced at the site was shipped to the towns of Clay and or Crossroad, Ohio in order to link up with the Scioto & Hocking Railroad line. The furnace changed ownership at least three times between 1865 and 1898. It went into receivership and was leased to the Wellstone Iron and Steel Company during the Spanish American War. The furnace closed in 1900 and was dismantled in 1906.
Limestone Furnace 1854-1860
Limestone Furnace was built by Evans, Walterhouse, & Others either 1854 or 1855 and used charcoal. The Panic of 1857 caused the furnace to enter into receivership with a debt of $80,000. The business did not recover from this bankruptcy and closed in 1860. The furnace was owned by the Limestone Furnace Co. and managed by William J. Evans. In half of 1856 the furnace produced 1,800 tons of iron drawn from horizontal lower coal measure ore. Limestone Furnace is located directly off of the CH&D roadbed, just north of the Cooper Hollow Wildlife Area. Take Rt. 32 East from Jackson to 327. Follow Rt. 327 South under the Rt. 35 overpass until it dead ends. Make a right hand turn and then an immediate left onto the CH&D roadbed. Stay on the road until you reach the Cooper Hollow Park Ranger Station, just before crossing a small stream.
Diamond Furnace 1854-1867
Diamond Furnace was built in downtown Jackson at the west end of Main Street. Construction began in 1854 and was completed in 1855. The furnace was built by Bob S. Wynn and John Powell. The framework was in place by July 29th, 1854 and the store started operations on July 26th, 1855. The engine house, coal house, and worker residences were completed on November 15th, 1855. The original furnace owners were Gratton, Hoffman, and Company. The furnace was also known as Lick furnace, owing to the nearby Salt works. The furnace went into blast in January of 1856. R. C. Hoffman was the President, J. J. Hoffman was Secretary, and Alexander Gratton functioned at the Manager. In 1857 several new members were added to the ownership - Moses Sternberger, Peter Powell (who became President of the firm), and J. W. Hanna. In 1864 the furnace was purchased by J. M. G Smith, who was a furnace man from the Youngstown, Ohio area. He changed the name from Lick furnace to Diamond. The furnace went out of blast on July 18th, 1867 and was subsequently torn down. No trace of the furnace remains. Information by Robert Ervin.
Latrobe Furnace 1854-1885
The furnace was located two miles southeast of the Berlin RR St. on the Hocking Valley RR and was owned by, Bundy, Austin & Co., and managed by Drew Ricker. Built in 1854 by (from Jackson County) W. McGhee, H.F. Austin, H. S. Bundy, R. C. Hoffman, and (from Meigs County) Valentine B. Horton. Per Robert Ervin, Latrobe was named for the Frenchman who supervised the construction of the site in 1854. The initial investment capital was $60,000 and the furnace had a capacity of 3,000 tons per year. Blew Out in 1885.
Tropic Furnace 1873-1896
Located one hundred yards east of the Chillicothe Street Bridge at the junction with Athens Street in the city of Jackson. The furnace was built in 1873 by the Tropic Furnace Company. It only operated for one year and closed in 1879. The furnace was founded on March 10th, 1873, with Ezekial T. Jones as President and Daniel D. Morgan as Secretary. Ezekial had worked previously at Orange Furnace and then went to work for a furnace in Clay County, Indiana. His brother was also a furnace man. Morgan had been the manager of Cambria Furnace. At some point the furnace must have been sold, because Ervin lists a H. L. Chapman (President) and J.C. Jones (Secretary) as the principals when the furnace closed in 1896. Information by Robert Ervin.
Note there were two types of furnaces, hot blast and cold blast, that operated in Jackson County, Ohio.
An average HOT BLAST furnace would produce about 3000 tons of iron per year. This type of furnace required about 3.79 cords of wood, or 137 bushels of charcoal, per ton of iron produced. "Hot blast" furnace used compressed heated air to raise the temperature of the furnace. Therefore, a typical hot blast furnace required about 11,370 cords of wood to be cut per year. The hot blast furnace would consume 7,890 tons of raw iron ore per year.
An average COLD BLAST furnace would produce about 2000 tons of iron per year. Cold blast furnaces required more fuel, needing about 5.84 cords of wood, or 215 bushels of charcoal, per ton of iron produced. Therefore, a typical cold blast furnace required about 11,680 cords of wood to be cut per year. The cold blast furnace would consume 5,260 tons of raw iron ore per year. "Cold blast" iron had a higher carbon content. The iron was harder in nature and was used in the manufacture of such items as wheels for railroad cars, rails on which the cars ran, and other items where a higher degree of hardness was required.
Virgin timberland yielded about 40 cords of wood per acre, while second growth forests produced 20 cords per acre. Most furnaces owned several thousand acres, and worked 200-600 acres per year. They generally planned on a 20-30 year renewal cycle for each area worked.
The ore was dug or lifted. A common practice was to scrape the top of a hill, cut the raw ore, and then "lift" the cut blocks onto a wagon. Fourteen to twenty-one men would work in the iron beds. When the dirt became 7-10 feet deep, it was deemed uneconomical to continue on the particular hill, and the miners would move to a new hill. Miners were generally paid $0.50-$1.00 per ton of ore dug (lifted). Furnaces paid $2.00-$4.00 for each ton of ore delivered to the furnace.
The charcoal making process were known as colliers. Typically, about 12 full time colliers were required to keep a furnace in operation. The charcoal was produced from timber. The wood was placed into a pile 30-50 feet in diameter and 25 feet tall. The pile would be covered with a mound of dirt. Then the timber would be burned for 3-30 days to turn the wood into charcoal. The mounds were watched 24 hours a day as any opening needed to be patched up. When the wood was charred, the dirt was removed and the remains were carefully raked to ensure that if any portion ignited (spontaneous combustion) the entire pile would not be lost.
Jackson Furnace 1836-1874
The furnace was situated about seven miles northwest of Monroe Furnace. Built in 1836 by J. Hurd, Young, and Others and owned by Jackson Furnace Company, Davis & Tracy According to Robert Ervin, the stack at Jackson furnace was 40 feet tall. Jackson had the first steam engine in Jackson County. A year after the furnace was built, the Panic of 1837 hit, causing the owners to sell the furnace to Ellison, Tewksberry, and Company. The furnace was operated by the new owners for several years and closed in 1874. One leading official at the furnace was Isaac Brown, who later ran Star Furnace in Jackson.
Globe Furnace April 1936
by Theodor Jung
Jackson Globe Iron Company workers-ca. 1921
The furnace was built in 1872 by Watts, Hoop & Company. Henry Hossman headed the construction project. The original company was owned by J. M. Watts, Peter Hoop, Jr., C. S. Dickason, and T. P. Sutherland.
In 1873, Thomas T. Jones formed a company to purchase both Globe and Fulton Furnaces. Mr. Jones had emigrated from Wales in 1837 and was the first president of Jefferson Furnace in 1854. The new company was incorporated as the Globe Iron Company. The Stockholders in the company were listed in the December 11th, 1873 edition of "The Jackson Standard".
J. M. Watts, Thomas T. Jones, A. Bentley, Linn Bentley, Peter Hoop, Jr., C. P. Lloyd, Eben Jones, L. T. Murfin, Elias Crandall, John B. Folsom, H. A. Towne, A. B. Monahan, Robert Hoop, W. C. Draper, T. T. Jones, Thomas Williams, William Lewis, J. J. Thomas, John Williams, Morgan Williams, and Elias Morgan.
The original site of Globe Furnace was around the site of the Eddie Jones ball field. This structure burned down in 1876. After this event, Fulton Furnace was remodeled and became the site of the Globe Iron Company.
The original Globe Furnace was on the west edge of town and operated for only four years until 1876, when it was destroyed by fire.
In 1873, the Globe Furnace Company and the Fulton Furnace Company were reorganized and took the name the Globe Iron Company. The furnaces continued to operate independently until the 1876 fire. The Globe Furnace and Fulton Furnace was then renamed Globe Furnace and remained near the Main and South streets intersection.
The Globe Iron Company operated successfully under the leadership of Thomas A. Jones until his untimely death in 1887 at the age of 81. He was killed in a buggy accident in an attempt to catch a business train bound for Cincinnati.
Orange Furnace Co., Jackson , Ohio script
Star Furnace, located near the present site of Luigino's, had also seen the value of silvery pig iron. Star Furnace had the first iron stack ever erected in the county and was one of the most modern of its time. That plant, though, was abandoned in 1923.
The Fulton Furnace was based on the southern edge of Jackson and was started by Captain Lewis Davis, who had been associated with the Orange Furnace. The furnace was located just east of the current day intersection of Main and South streets, near the location of the Jackson Square Shopping Center.